source: Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany)
Stages of construction documentation of bioliq ® pilot plant
Stage I (2005-2008)
Stage II / III (2010-2011)
Level IV / V (2011-2012)

The Karlsruhe bioliq ® process
Integrated process for the production of synthetic fuels and chemical
Basic products of dry residual biomass

At the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology ( KIT) is intensively the implementation of various thermochemical processes research for the energetic use of biomass. In the emerging pilot plant for the Karlsruhe bioliq ® process is on the realization of a process working process chain , from order date largely unused residual biomass tailored, synthetic fuels for different motor types manufacture. This BTL fuels (biomass- to-liquid) are of predominantly dry, biogenic residues as a starting material, such as straw or wood residue from agriculture , forestry and agricultural care synthesized. The realization in an inclusive process chain enables not only the production of biofuels also the production of industry-relevant basic products such as synthesis gas and chemical raw materials , such as they also in the manufacture petroleum-based fuels can be produced. The biofuels can admixture or in pure form part of future replace petroleum-based fuels and offer a range environmental and climate-related benefits , for example, by particularly clean combustion.
Highly concentrated slurries from pyrolysis tar and coke have a viscosity of a few Pascal seconds at room temperature. The heating value of such slurries is slightly larger than that of the starting biomass and the energy density can reach 60 to 65% that of fuel oil, in favorable cases. The energy content of the slurries can be up to 90% of the original biomass energy and is generally due to the Koksanteils significantly (up to 50%) higher than for pyrolysis alone.
Reactors of fast pyrolysis of biomass...
Fast pyrolysis of biomass
In the first step the biomass is carbonized under air exclusion (pyrolyzed). This results in Coke, gas and condensates. In the next step (slurry preparation) is then the finely ground coke with the condensates slurried to a suspension (slurry). The aim of the pyrolysis is the highest possible Yield of condensates together with a little coke and gas shares. Such a product distribution is determined by the Achieved fast pyrolysis. Dry biomass is converted to 45-70% organic or pyrolysis oil from 0.15 to 25% coke and 15-30% gas. The implementation of the chopped biomass takes place in a twin screw reactor (Development of Lurgi for the sand crackers). In our technical concept, the pyrolysis plants are small dimensioned (catchment radius ~ 30 km, delivery of about 100,000 t / a of biomass), since the high volume and the low density of straw represent a high cost factor for transport.
Entrained flow gasification
The bioliqSynCrude ® is atomized in the entrained flow gasifier with hot oxygen and at about 1200 ° C to a tar-free, low-methane Raw synthesis gas converted. The type of carburetor used is particularly suitable for high-ash biomass. The process is carried out under pressures which are determined by the following synthesis, a complex gas-compression can thus be eliminated. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis require process pressures up to 30 bar, methanol or dimethyl ether synthesis (DME) up to 80 bar. The bioliq ® pilot gasifier is for 5 bar designed megawatts (1 t / h) and two pressure levels of 40 and 80 and is based on the Lurgi Multi Purpose Gasification (MPG) concept. Industrial partner for this process step is also Lurgi GmbH, Frankfurt.
Gas cleaning
For gas cleaning high pressure, high temperature processes are used , which can wurden.Diese developed at KIT at a later commercialization of energy savings through optimum temperature control and heat displacement expected . In the first stage, the bioliq ® pilot plant is first performed at 800 ° C, a particle deposition ( ash , coke, soot) with ceramic filter candles. Then, at about 500 ° C in a fixed bed absorber with sorbent trona (NaHCO3 , Na2CO3 • 2 H2O) acid gases (HCl, H2S) , alkalis and heavy metals separated . A catalytic converter is switched according to the decomposition of organic and nitrogenous substances (HCN , NH3) . The hot gas cleaning is used together with company MUT Advance Heating GmbH , Jena, realized and developed. The CO2 Separation takes place in the first stage by a konventionlle solvent washing. For a later development stage of the plant here also a hot gas cleaning provided .
Fuel synthesis
The fuel synthesis is carried out in two stages via dimethyl ether ( DME) as an intermediate for the synthesis of a hydrogen to Carbon monoxide ratio of about 1:1 , as is known from the biomass gasification normally occurs is beneficial. This represents a Simplification compared to the current , multistage procedure . DME synthesis runs at about 250 ° C and a pressure of about 55 bar from . The DME is further reacted in the pilot plant directly to a high - octane gasoline . Here, a zeolite-catalyzed Dehydration , isomerization, oligomerization, and at temperatures of about 350 ° C and a pressure of about 25 bar. Based on known processes ( MtG methanol to gasoline ) is thereby obtained with high selectivity , a fuel with gasoline quality. Unreacted Synthesis gas is returned via a gas recycle to the reactor. The synthesis steps are in collaboration with CAC, Chemistry Chemnitz , built and operated.
Fuels from biomass has great potential: You can in the short term replace a portion of fossil fuels and from an efficient mix renewable energies contribute. BTL fuels (biomass-to-liquid) of the second Generation offer advantages over bioethanol or biodiesel advantages, because they cover from a wide range of fuel types, such as kerosene, diesel and gasoline fuels. For the preparation of almost any plant biomass are used, the Origin and nature of any competition for land for Represents food production. Is particularly suitable cellulose-rich, dry residual biomass (straw, wood residues) from agriculture, forestry and Landscape management.