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--- RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ---

NEW GREEN CIVILIZATION

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| INDEX / NEW ENERGY |
 
02
NEW ENERGY
WIND
 
 
 
 
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The offshore wind farm Baltic 2 with an area of ​​about 30 km2 is built on the border with Denmark and Sweden. In the wind farm of 80 wind turbines of 3.6 MW class are built with a total installed capacity of 288 MW. The water depths vary 23-44 m.
Energy payback time of wind turbines

For the energy payback of wind turbines, there are always discussions with results that are far apart. It is therefore the following is a calculation of the energy payback time on hand a 1.5 MW wind turbine given as an example.
Resources Required amount Specific primary energy consumption Total primary energy consumption [kWh]
Steel 250 t 7 kWh/kg 1.700.000 kWh
Cement 100 t 1 kWh/kg 100.000 kWh
Plastic 30 t 20 kWh/kg 600.000 kWh
Money for construction
Pure construction costs
Establishment, approval, capital raising
1.250.000 €
750.000 €
6 kWh/€
2,4 kWh/€
7.500.000 kWh
1.800.000 kWh
Operational money for 20 years 4.500.000 € 2,4 kWh/€ 10.800.000 kWh
SUM     22.500.000 kWh
Energy payback time of wind turbines = energy for construction, building / energy production in one year
Energy payback time of wind turbines = 22.500.000 kWh / 6.750.000 kWh
 

1) Data for the materials according to the specifications for the wind turbine of Munich-Froettmaning, on the pile of rubble next to the Allianz Arena Deducted

2) The cost of the materials that make up about 10% of the total cost of the Munich-based wind turbine of 2.25 million €.

3) "Specific Cumulative energy consumption" in the manufacturing sector, see Statist. Federal Bureau

4) See Klaus Heinloth, "The energy issue"

5) Feed-in tariff 10ct/kWh for 20 years: maintenance, repairs, payments to capital providers

A wind turbine provides in Germany on average 1500 hours of full load current, with this average provides the selected example 1.5 MW wind turbine 2.25 million kWh per year. At the current electricity mix from us can be so saved 6.75 million kWh of primary energy (efficiency = 1/3).

 
Of course, the energy payback time is very much dependent upon the site. Much electricity is on the coast with lots of wind generated (it expects 2000 full-load hours), there is the energy payback time of 2.5 years in the inland with 900 full-load hours are 5.5 years.
 
 
 
Wind power resource assessment for Rafha, Saudi Arabia
S. Rehmana,, I.M. El-Aminb, F. Ahmada, S.M. Shaahida, A.M. Al-Shehrib, J.M. Bakhashwainb
aCenter for Engineering Research, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, KFUPM Box #767, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia bElectrical Engineering Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia Received 1 July 2005; accepted 7 July 2005
 
wind speed average value ( long time ) min. 2,5 m/s
  max. 4,9 m/s
wind speed 0 m/s 7%
wind speed 0 - 3,5 m/s 35%
wind speed > 3,5 m/s 65%
wind speed > 6,5 m/s 20%
   
Abstract
This paper, presents the analysis of wind speed data and available energy in Rafha area using wind machines of 600, 1000 and 1500kW sizes from three manufacturers. The long-term annual mean values of wind speeds were found to vary between a minimum of 2.5 m/s in the year 2002 and a maximum of 4.9 m/s in 1990. The frequency distribution showed that wind remained silent for 7% of the time on an average during 24 years of data period and 35% between 0 and 3.5 m/s. Wind speed remained above 3.5 m/s for 65% of the time and only 20% of the times above 6.5 m/s. The annual wind energy production and plant capacity factors, obtained using different methods and wind machines of three sizes and from three manufacturers are also discussed and compared.
 
(C) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
 

Energy yield and plant capacity factor for wind machines from different manufacturers obtained using wind speed data at 60m

 
wind machine size (kW) energy yield (kWh/year) plant utilization max./real
  MFR 1 MFR 2 MFR 3 MFR 1 MFR 2 MFR 3
600 800.000 680.000 640.000 15%   11%
1000 1.330.000 1.200.000 930.000     11%
1500 - 1.500.000 1.900.000     15%
  max. possible energy yield (kWh/a)      
600 5.260.000   5.600.000 100%   100%
1000     8.150.000     100%
1500     13.150.000     100%